Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a philosophy that aims to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of equipment in a production system.
One of the key concepts of TPM is the 16 losses, which are 16 different ways in which equipment can fail or be less productive. Understanding the 16 losses and how to reduce them is crucial for organizations that want to improve productivity and efficiency.
In this blog, we will explore what TPM is, how the 16 losses affect productivity, the difference between availability, performance, and quality losses, how to track the 16 losses in your organization, and ways to reduce the 16 losses for improved productivity.
What is TPM?
TPM is a philosophy that focuses on maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of equipment in a production system. It involves the active participation of all employees in the organization, from top management to frontline workers.
TPM aims to reduce downtime, improve productivity, and increase the quality of products.
How do the 16 losses affect productivity?
The 16 losses in TPM can lead to equipment downtime, reduced productivity, and lower-quality products. Equipment breakdowns, changeovers, and maintenance are examples of availability losses.
loss Speed reductions, minor stoppages, and defects in the equipment are examples of performance losses. Defects, scraps, and rework are examples of quality losses.
what are 16 major losses in tpm
Breakdowns or equipment failures:
Unexpected equipment failures or breakdowns can lead to unplanned downtime, which can have a negative impact on production efficiency. For example, if a machine in a production line breaks down, the entire line may need to be shut down until the machine is repaired.
Set-up and adjustment time:
The time required to set up or adjust equipment can also lead to lost production time. For example, if a production line needs to be reconfigured to manufacture a different product, the time required to make the necessary adjustments can cause delays and reduce overall efficiency.
Idling and minor stoppages:
These are brief periods of downtime that can add up over time and result in significant losses. Examples of minor stoppages can include machine jams or tool changes, which may only take a few minutes to resolve but can happen frequently.
When machines operate at less than their maximum speed, it can result in lower overall production rates. This can happen for a variety of reasons, including wear and tear on equipment or suboptimal operating conditions.
Quality defects and rework:
When products don't meet quality standards, they may need to be reworked or scrapped. This can result in lost time and resources, as well as increased production costs.
Startup yield losses:
During the startup phase of production, there may be a higher rate of defects or waste due to process variations or other factors. This can lead to losses in both time and materials.
Yield losses can occur when the amount of raw material used in production exceeds the amount of finished product that is produced. This can happen due to inefficiencies in the manufacturing process or inaccurate measurement of materials.
Material losses occur when raw materials are wasted or lost during production. This can happen due to spillage, overfilling, or other factors.
Yield losses due to incorrect processing: If a manufacturing process is not optimized for a particular product or material, it can result in lower yields or quality defects. This can happen due to factors such as incorrect machine settings or lack of operator training.
Energy losses occur when energy is used inefficiently or wasted during production. This can happen due to factors such as poor insulation or inefficient use of lighting.
Startup losses due to lack of raw materials:
If there is a delay in the delivery of raw materials, it can result in lost time and production capacity. This can be especially problematic for just-in-time production processes.
Yield losses due to equipment wear:
Over time, the equipment can wear down and become less efficient. This can result in lower yields or increased production time.
Yield losses due to improper operation: If operators are not properly trained or do not follow standard operating procedures, it can result in lower yields or quality defects.
Reduced throughput occurs when the rate of production is slower than expected. This can happen due to equipment malfunctions, staffing shortages, or other factors.
Yield losses due to lack of manpower or skills:
If there is a shortage of skilled operators or other personnel, it can result in lower yields or quality defects.
Yield losses due to external factors: External factors such as weather or supply chain disruptions can also impact production yields. For example, if a raw material supplier experiences a shortage, it can impact the production process and result in yield losses.
How do the 16 TPM losses affect productivity?
the 16 losses in TPM can significantly impact the productivity of an organization. These losses can lead to delays in production, increased costs, and reduced efficiency.
Availability losses, such as equipment breakdowns and waiting times, can cause significant delays in production schedules. Performance losses, such as machine speed and quality issues, can result in defects and rework, leading to wasted materials and increased costs.
Resource losses, such as inefficient processes and poor communication, can cause delays and errors in the production process.
These losses not only affect the production process, but can also lead to decreased employee morale and job satisfaction. When employees are constantly dealing with equipment breakdowns or delays, they may become frustrated and disengaged, leading to a further decrease in productivity.
To address these losses and improve productivity, organizations can implement TPM strategies such as regular equipment maintenance, improved communication and training for employees, and streamlining of production processes.
By identifying and addressing the root causes of these losses, organizations can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and increase employee satisfaction.
In short, the 16 losses in TPM can have a significant impact on productivity, but by implementing TPM strategies and addressing the root causes of these losses, organizations can improve Maximizing Efficiency with TPM and maintain a competitive edge.
How to track 16 losses in tpm
To track the 16 losses in your organization, it is important to first establish a system for collecting and analyzing data related to the production process. This can involve regular monitoring of equipment and production metrics, as well as gathering feedback from employees on potential areas for improvement.
One effective method for tracking the 16 losses is to create a Loss and Waste Analysis (LWA) log. This log is used to track and categorize the different types of losses that occur during production, such as equipment breakdowns or quality defects. By analyzing this data over time, organizations can identify trends and patterns in the production process, and work to address the root causes of these losses.
Another effective method for tracking the 16 losses is through the use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). KPIs are measurable values that indicate how well an organization is achieving its production goals.
By tracking KPIs such as equipment availability, cycle time, and defect rate, organizations can identify areas for improvement and measure progress over time.
In addition to these methods, it is also important to establish a culture of continuous improvement within the organization. This involves encouraging employees to identify and report potential areas for improvement, and regularly reviewing and analyzing production metrics to identify areas for optimization.
Overall, tracking the 16 losses in your organization involves establishing a system for collecting and analyzing data, using tools such as LWA logs and KPIs, and promoting a culture of continuous improvement. By consistently monitoring and addressing the root causes of these losses, organizations can improve productivity and maintain a competitive edge.
What are some ways to reduce the 16 losses?
There are several ways to reduce the 16 losses in TPM, including:
Reducing the 16 losses in TPM is crucial for maximizing productivity and improving overall Maximizing Efficiency with TPM. Here are some ways to reduce the 16 losses:
Regular maintenance and cleaning of machines and equipment can help prevent breakdowns and ensure that they are running at optimal performance levels.
Use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs):
SOPs can help employees follow a standardized process, reducing variations and potential errors.
Implementing 5S (Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain) principles can help create a more organized and efficient workplace, reducing the chances of losses due to unnecessary movement or searching for tools.
Identifying and Analyzing Losses:
Conducting regular loss analysis and identifying the root causes can help in developing effective strategies to reduce and eliminate them.
Emphasizing on continuous improvement can help create a culture of learning and innovation, where employees are constantly looking for ways to improve their work processes and reduce losses.
Encouraging employees to take ownership of their machines and equipment can help in identifying and addressing issues before they become major problems.
By implementing these strategies, organizations can significantly reduce the 16 losses in TPM, leading to increased productivity, Maximizing Efficiency with TPM, and profitability.